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Morphological, Anatomical and Tissue Culture Studies on Xylocarpus granatum

By walaa on June 23,2008


 Noorma W. Haron, and Rosna M. Taha  


      Xylocarpus species are important endangered mangrove species in Malaysia. One of the economic importance of the species, particularly Xylocarpus granatum is for wood carving. Hence, there is an urgent need to conserve the species. In the present study, some morphological, anatomical and tissue culture studies were carried out on Xylocarpus granatum. To date, there is no record on detailed morphological study of the species. Therefore, it is one of the aims of the study to investigate the morphological characteristics of the species. Anatomical studies on the leaf and primary stem were also carried out. Scanning electron microscope study revealed the presence of sunken, anomocytic-type stomata on the abaxial surface of the leaf. Results from anatomical studies showed the presence of thick cuticle on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaf. Sunken stomata and thick cuticle are adaptations of mangrove species to reduce transpiration. Tannin cells were also observed in the leaf lamina and primary stem and this needs further investigation. Regeneration of this species from tissue culture had been attempted, however, only callus formation was observed. Formation of callus from leaf segments, young stems and flower buds were observed after three weeks being cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.5mg/l 2,4, Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). MS medium supplemented with 10 mg/l 2,4-D and 10mg/l Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) managed to produce 87.5% callus after 14 days in culture when leaf explants were used. It was observed that more calli were formed when the cultures were maintained in the dark. At pH 4.0, the cultures seemed to form faster and more calli were formed. The addition of 0.1g/l sodium chloride (NaCl) to MS medium produced 70% callus. The callus produced was analysed to see whether they are embryogenic or non- embryogenic. A few callus cells were found to be in the globular stage of embryogenesis but failed to develop further. Work is in progress to induce somatic embryogenesis in this species.Key words: Morphology, anatomy, Xylocarpus granatum, tissue culture, callus, hormones.

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