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Cytogenetics Comparison of Cultivated and Wild Relatives of Genus Vigna in Egypt

By ayman on June 08,2008

 
 Magda I. Soliman, Reda M. Rizk, and Noha M. El-Eraky
 

Abstract

Cytogenetics and morphological studies have been conducted to compare between the cultivated and wild relatives of the genus Vigna in Egypt. Eleven germplasms, representing three species of the genus Vigna, were obtained from National Gene Bank (NGB), as well as collected taxa from natural habitats. In general, the plant hairness, flower color, pod wall thickness, cotyledon color, seed color, eye pattern and color, seed turgidity and seed crowding are the most important morphological attributes to distinguish between two the subgenera, Vigna and Ceratotropis of the genus Vigna. All the studied Vigna germplasms are diploid with twenty-two chromosomes in somatic cells. Germplasm of the subgenus Ceratotropis recorded the highest interchromosomal asymmetry index (A2­, 0.21 - 0.28) and only two chromosome types (nsm(-) & nm) were recorded in the karyotype formula. Types and proportions of mitotic abnormalities were recorded. The electrophoretic protein analysis showed twenty-six bands of molecular weight ranging from 73 to 45.25 KD. The unique band of molecular weight 64.750 KD was found to be specific to Vigna unguiculata subspecies unguiculata cv-group unguiculata cv. Fodder. While the band of molecular weight 46.000 and 45.250 KD were specific to Vigna unguiculata subspecies unguiculata cv-group unguiculata cv. Kafer El-Sheikh. These bands could be taken as a positive marker for the two cultivars. Cluster analysis and PERMAP-Biplot between the studied eleven germplasms of genus Vigna revealed the importance of helim colour (attribute 39), eye length (attribute 37), length of space between cotyledons (attribute 41), standard petal width (attribute 8), pod curvature (attribute 18), polyploidy%, total chromosome volume (attribute 62), and chromosome radius (attribute 63) to split subgenus Vigna into two sections: Catiang and Vigna.

Keywords: Cytogenetics, electrophoresis, Vigna luteola, Vigna radiate, Vigna unguiculata

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